Penn State Online Degree


don't you squirm when you get introduced like that? sit in your chair. feel kind of uncomfortable, but thank you very much for that great introduction. and i have to say that i'm humbled and i'm honored to be here with all of you. it's incredible to think about this conference and the nature of it. being something that only penn staters can come to and you can fill a space this large it really shows a kind of commitment to teaching and learning with technology that i think is really impressive. thank you for the opportunity to be here. for those of you who have your laptops or iphones or other device, this is the

hashtag that we're using on twitter today. if you do have questions, or comments you'd like to make you can use the tag in twitter to tweet those thoughts. and we have a separate laptop set up here they'll be checking periodically. it's refreshing itself so i can see the things you're saying. kind of an informal back channel and will help me maybe be a little more responsive during the keynote to the things you're thinking about. so i want to begin by telling a story. i think you're always supposed to begin with a story. a story or a joke. we'll start with a story today. this is the polo parable. about the move to teaching and learning online. once upon a time

there was a water polo team at a university that did very well. they'd won conference three years in a row. and one morning the ad of the university walked into the coach's office and said, coach, were so proud of you. your team is the pride of the school. you know as well as we do you're the only team that really does anything here. not penn state, obviously. he said, you're the pride of the school and i have this incredible opportunity for you to really do something new and innovative. it turns out next year in the conference that there's a new kind of polo that's gonna be played here.

and with the defensive strategies and the offense that you have and the recruiting and all your experience, i'm sure that if we take you off of water polo and put you coaching this new polo team, that you'll do just as well and we can win conference the very first year. so just take your playbook and get ready for this new opportunity. thanks for your commitment to the university and the ad leaves. now the idea that you could run the same plays on the backs of horses that you could in the pool, with any measure of success, is sort of ludicrous. and as we

think about moving our teaching online it's sort of like saying, that we're swimming on horseback. in other words, to think that you could do the same things online that you can do in the classroom, is just ludicrous. it's a different kind of space. it has different affordances, different opportunities, different pitfalls, and even though at a high level it is about scoring points and playing defense at a very, very high level. below that the individual tactics and strategies and things you might try to do. i would probably want to be very different on the backs of horses than they would in the pool. so just having said that, i want to use that story just to frame

the conversation today. that things really change very quickly. so if you've seen this video, you know, did you know?, you know what this next slide says, but in terms of the country that's the richest in the world, with the largest military, and the strongest education system, etc. the answer to the implied question here is great britain, of course. just a hundred years ago. and things do change very, very rapidly. galadriel said in lord of the rings, "the world is changed." but it's actually worse than her statement it's changing. all the time. and the pace of change, the rate of change,

seems to be increasing significantly. i want to talk about six kinds of specific changes. first the change from things being analog to being digital. and this one should be fairly straightforward to understand. most of us don't get our music on vinyl anymore. we get it in digital format either on cd's or by mp3 downloads. tv, of course, almost transitioned completely to digital in february, i suppose that's gonna happen in june now. our phone service, the way we read newspapers, the movies that we get on dvd instead of vhs, things are moving or have move from being analog to being digital.

things are changing from being tethered to being mobile. so i don't have to have my phone plugged into the wall anymore to use it. i'm not connected to the wall that way. i don't have to have my computer plugged in to be on the internet or even to be powered for that matter. and i don't have to show up in the office every day to work either. and things are changing from being isolated to being much more connected. and i think there's a whole semester course here that maybe we ought to think about it at some point. but if you think about all the kinds of different connections between people whether it's by email, by instant message, by skype, or however.

the way that content is all connected to one another. hyperlinks being the definitive feature of the web, which is a way of connecting some content to other content. and then the way that systems are connected to one another and that they talk to each other. and then the way that content is connected to systems and systems are connected to people and people are connected to content. this massive inter-connection is really defining feature of our time. a change from things being generic to things being personal. so when you go to buy a car or when you go to buy a computer, particularly in the case of a computer, you don't walk into the store and pick

a computer up off the shelf. you go onto a website and say, i want my monitor to be this big and this much ram and want this kind of hard drive and want this version of the operating system. you want it to be just the way that you want it to be. and want you car, if you're gonna buy a car you may as well get the color you want. if you're phones were to go off, we would hear different ring tones on every phone in the room. because we want things to be ours. we want them to be personal to us. and there's been a big change from a culture of really consuming media, primarily, to one that's where we're all much more involved in producing media. whether that's instead of only

listening to the radio, also podcasting. instead of just reading the news, also blogging or creating videos and uploading those to youtube. we've become a culture that's much more participatory and that invites creation in a way that is different from before. and then finally it changed from things being closed to things being open. both in terms of software, so if you think of linnox in addition to something like microsoft windows or in terms of applications something like open office compared to microsoft office. and data, all kinds of gis data, weather data,

that's openly available to us. data from nasa. and then content as well available on the web in a very open way. so if we lay these things all out side by side and look at the way things kind of worked then and the way that they do work now or the way they're increasing to work now. the really disappointing thing about this slide is that you can easily change the tops of the columns here and still have a pretty effective description. pretty accurate description of what it is that we're all doing. and to me i think this idea, not the digital divide, where people have computers and people don't,

but the daily divide. the way that education is so different from the rest of our lives. in particularly our students lives. is a problem for us. they come expecting a certain kind of experience based on the experience that they have with government and with business and with other things in their life. and then they get to school and school is so different. in his new book remix, larry lessig gives a great example about the book-ification of tv and i think lessig was your keynote speaker here last year or maybe just the year before. if you haven't had a chance to read remix i would highly recommend it to you. but the idea about the book-ification of tv is

imagine going into the library and as you walk into the library you ask to be pointed towards science-fiction and they say, i'm sorry, science-fictions only open from 7:30 to 8:00. you know it's do- it-yourself right now. the do-it-yourself books are available right now if you'd like to look at them. you have to come back at 7:30 if you want science-fiction. you would just, yeah, i mean the faces you're making at me are the right faces. it's just a ridiculous idea. and if you talk to young people today about television and tell them did you know there was a time that if you wanted to watch lost you actually

had to be in front of your television at 9:00 or you missed it. it would seem just as ridiculous as the idea that you had to be at the library at a certain to use types of books. so things like tivo, things like hulu really book-ify television programs and make them so that they're available to us whenever we want them. the obvious application to us here is this idea of probably book-ifying courses. and an online course, i mean it's online, so it's sort of book-ified already. it's not really a challenge to talk to you about that, but i do want you to think

about book-ifying our online courses, sorry, our on campus courses. why do i have to be in certain room from 10:30 to 11:30 to hear you broadcast your lecture? and if you've been watching inside higher ed and campus technology and some of these magazines lately you'll be seeing a increasing trend of people reporting on experiments where they bring some of their students to class and other sections they disallow from coming to class and they give them podcasts of the lecture and say, stay home and listen to this podcast. and then what they find

later on when they test them on the material covered either in class or covered on the podcast, is that the kids who sat back in their room and listened to the podcast actually learned quite a bit more than the people who attend lecture. and if you think about this for two reasons it's very clear, if you think about tivo and you're watching sports and miss a play and you hit that seven second skip back button on your tivo. imagine being able to just skip back and catch what you missed in the lecture. you're taking notes. you missed that. you look up. it's gone. and you're not gonna raise your hand in one of these hundred person seminar classes and stop the conversation and ask them to go back.

and another thing we know about the way students use ipods is they tend to listen to podcasts somewhere between one and a half and two times normal speed. now that maybe because we speak like this in class. one and a half times is like normal speed for a person. but when you listen to one and a half or two times speed, you attend to it a little more. so if you're attending more and you can go back and listen to the things you missed a second or third or fourth time, it shouldn't surprise us that those students have the book-ified version of the course tend to do a little bit better. but this on campus/off campus dichotomy that we talk about

online and on campus in terms of the way we use media i think is sort of a false dichotomy. i think we can have our cake and eat it too. despite what i said earlier about the difference in strategies with the polo parable. now when i say that things are changing, but education is lagging behind, one way you might be tempted to respond is well, that's great, but we're education. i mean you gotta have a college degree to get a job so really who cares. where are they gonna go? why do we need to respond to that? because

historically we really have had a monopoly position. in terms of providing access to the kinds of education and the kinds of credentials that get students better employment. to get them any employment at all in some fields. but this monopoly that we've enjoyed is really being pressed hard in a variety of ways. if you think about why students come to the university, i think they come four at least four reasons. i'm sure there are more reasons than ones on this list. but they do come for access to content. whether that content is teaching materials, the textbooks, and the notes and things that you put together and provide to them. but they also come for research. the access to the books in the library

and the journals and those collections of databases. they come for access to support services because you and i both know that there's no textbook around that as you're reading through it at some point you don't have a question. that you want to turn to another human being and say, i've read this three times now. i still don't get it. can you explain to me what this means? or they want to know which course they should take first. what sequence they should do things. they need these kinds of support. obviously, social life is a huge reason that people come to university. and then they want to earn a degree. they want this credential that gets them a job that is some third party, supposedly objective third parties,

guaranteed to the employer that yes, this person does know the things that they claim to know. so if we look at these one at time if you think about content and the access to content that students gain by coming to the university and you'll look around at things like mit open courseware. the things like the public library of science or archive.org. google scholar, there are a variety of places that students can go these days where they can get free and open access to really high quality either instructional content or research content. they don't have to come to us anymore for that.

if you think about support services in terms of a student getting their question answered, there are a dozen places that they can go. dozens of dozens of places they can go to this as well. if you've never use chacha, it's absolutely brilliant. you just take out your phone and you text message a question to the chacha number and sixty so seconds later some person using google and some array of tools in a back room somewhere has found the answer to your question and texted back to you at no cost to you. so go ahead and get your cell phones out. i know you're gonna do it. don't hide them under the table. just pull them out and then try it.

yahoo answers, i assume most of you have seen before. a board you can go ask a question and people compete to provide the best answer. and they do like a million questions and answers a year. there's some really great research in '07 out of the university of maine, about rate my professor that professors tend to hate. but it turns out that the data on ratemyprofessor.com when compared to the smiley sheets that students fill out at the end of course, actually correlates at around .65.7 level. so you can actually make, as a student, if you want to know who's easy, who's hard, who's understandable, and especially the

little chili pepper, who's hot. who do you want to take class from? rate my professor is actually a pretty reliable source of data for this. and we could mention twitter as well. social life almost goes without saying. i'll just say facebook. i'll say myspace. danah will tell us more about social networks later in the day. but then degrees. you might think well there might be places they can go for content. well there might be people they can ask their questions to. well there might be places they could meet other people and socialize, but we have the degrees.

well it turns out that there are places that people can go and other kinds of things they can get than an undergraduate degree. particularly the examples here in the technical area. so if you are a microsoft certified systems engineer or a red hat certified engineer or a cisco certified network administrator. if you have one of these credentials and you're competing for a network administrator job versus somebody with a bachelor's in computer science guess what, you're gonna get the job. because these credentials are more valuable in that particular kind of employment. and there are other areas emerging that we can talk about where there are

credentials that compete either well or better than. they compete very well with undergraduate degrees. we don't have a monopoly in this area anymore either. so to wrap this all up, everything that we provide as a university is being provided my someone else. this wasn't the case before. and it tends to be the case that when institutions specialize on just really getting your questions and answering them or just providing you with access to research content or something. when an institution specializes in tends to do a better job than the generalist in

terms of quality. and it also tends be able to provide that service at a lower cost. because that's all they do. they really focus and they hone in. now higher education on the other hand has had an average tuition increase in cost to like seventy-six percent over the last ten years. and in terms of our quality, if you haven't seen this video of a vision of students today, i'd highly recommend to you. you know a hundred fifteen people is my average class size. so as we look around us and we see industries either completely failing or on the verge of failure everywhere. whether it's automobiles or insurance or banks. what makes us so

snobby as to think higher education is immuned to everything else that's going on around us. because if i, i won't, but if i asked by show of hands who in here really feels that your university's existence is actually threatened by what's happening in the economy. i doubt very many of you would actually raise your hand. but i will tell you that there is no bail out coming for us. what is coming for us is double digit budget cuts. they're probably already here. and we will probably see them again. so there's no monopoly for us any longer and there's no bail out coming, so we may

actually have to behave like other people that exist in competitive markets and we may have to innovate. we may have to change what we do in order to stay relevant. now earlier i went on this left to right to saying that education is lagging way behind. and you may have thought to yourself, well, what about e-learning though? i'll say it to you that e-learning was really innovative fifteen years ago. but if you think that web based courses which we were doing in '95 are your response fifteen years later to everything that's happened on the internet. everything that's happened

with the social web, if e-learning is your response, i think we're kidding ourselves. if we look at e-learning in terms of these changes, it's true the e-learning is digital. and it's true that i can stay at home in my bunny slippers and do it. i can be mobile. but e-learning is famously more isolating than even an on campus class. where you at least have informal interactions with other students in the hallway before and after. in an e-learning kind of experience you generally get exactly the same content that everyone else in the course gets.

so that it's still very generic experience. your interaction with the content is frequently download the powerpoint. download the lecture note. download the pdf. it's very much a consumption kind of model. it's not one that as a student you participate in creating the content that's used in the course. and then of course if you don't pay your tuition, if you don't apply for admission to the university and become formally admitted, you just don't get in. so i want to suggest to you that we don't even make it half way with e-learning. it gets us about a third of the way there.

i want to suggest to you that openness actually underpins, from this slide here, openness underpins these three other values that education ought to be thinking about that we're missing. and let me try to suggest why. the first is that the most obvious one, you can't connect to something if you don't have access to it. so if you have a student that took a math course a year, a year and a half ago, and you're getting ready to teach them a principle and you'd like them to go back and review that, i believe penn state's an angel user right? so if that course has been blown away out of angel, then what are you gonna connect them to?

or even if there's a section of that course meeting right now, that students not enrolled in it, how are you gonna connect them to it? there are a number of us that have a little joke that says what if facebook worked like your learning management system? and every fifteen weeks facebook deleted all your friends, deleted all your groups, deleted all your photos, forgot everything about you and made you start again. that's not the way you build a community by blowing everything away every fifteen or sixteen weeks. you can't connect to something if it's not open. if you don't have access to it. it terms of personalizing you might be able to

actually go in and make some changes to some digital content, but if you don't have permission to do that, strictly speaking, it might not be the best idea. so not openness in terms of technology, but in this case openness in terms of licensing. if you really want to personalize something, change it maybe into a different language. change that language reading level up or down because it was written for grad students and you're working with freshman. any of those kinds of changes you might want to make you need something to be open for you to legally go in and make those modifications. and this maybe the most subtle one of all, but if there's no outlet for your

creative work, if there's no place that you can go to share the things that you're doing with other people, it can be really difficult to get motivated to produce creative work. so for example, four or five years ago, who in the world was producing video? and it's not just about access to flip cameras and things that are inexpensive. the existence of youtube, the fact that there's some place you can go that's open to anybody coming and posting any video they want and sharing it with their friends, the existence of that space is what's largely responsible for the fact that people create so much video now. because there's something they can do with it. there's a way to share it. there's a place that's open

to catching and receiving that. so if it's true that openness underpins all these other things that are missing from what we might be doing, then we can ask ourselves well, how? how do we as higher ed go about opening things up? and of course mit open courseware is probably the poster child for opening things up in higher education. i'm gonna go ahead and say, but by raise of hand how many of you know what mit open courseware is? ok!

so you know that there's access to exams and quizzes and video content and some things like this. i think this approach to doing open education we might call open 1.0. kind of it's a first generation try. there are hundreds of universities around the globe now operating on this model that are sharing over six thousand courses. and if you think about it if someone gets on google on looks for i don't know, biology, and there are twenty biology courses from different universities around the world that are shared completely in the open. when they search for

biology, if penn state doesn't have an open biology course when they go to do that search they're not gonna find penn state. they're gonna find the universities that do have these courses published out in the open. so even though we might say that this is kind of open 1.0, in a world where people go to google to look for things. if you don't have some material out there that google can index when people search google, you just don't show up. and if you don't show up, then there's, if you don't show up in a google search result then you're a tree that fell in the forest. are you there or not, if you don't show up in a google result?

do you exist? these open 1.0 kinds of projects are very inspirational. obviously because you can see hundreds of people followed mit's example. but they're not very sustainable. and in the case of mit open courseware, this is a four million dollar a year operation. only two million of which is committed from the internal budget. they have to raise two million dollars every year from now to eternity to keep that project running or change their business model. i think it's true that when we look at these open courseware projects, like the one at mit, like the one at my

previous institution at utah state. these open 1.0 projects sort of said, we're gonna do something great for the world. we're gonna release our material. we're gonna share. we're gonna do all these things for them. and then some where along the way we figured out that by sharing with them there are some happy kind of accidental benefits that came to us on our own campus. i think what you see now in a new generation of open projects that are starting is people are switching that around to say, we're gonna do some things that are open, but we're gonna do them primarily for the benefit of our own core constituency

on campus. but we know that by doing those things in the open, that there will be benefits that accrue to people outside the university. and just making that small change to say, we're gonna do this for the benefit of ourselves, for the benefit of our students, and let people outside enjoy kind of a peripheral benefit instead of the other way around. i think will make a bit difference in how these projects will play out over the next three to five years. and we also tend to think about open education resources or open courseware as being about something that's all, it's out there, it's online, it's

at a distance, but there's a nice comfortable home for oer in the campus classroom. i want to share a couple of examples of different experiments i've been trying. some of which have been successful. some of which have been utter failures. of course you learn more from the failures. but things that i've been doing in my own teaching to try to be more open. and each of these is in an on campus class. so first example, in terms of thinking about connectedness and openness

for about five years now in all of the assignments i've given to the students i've had in various classes, i've asked them don't print off your assignment and hand it in to me. and certainly whatever you do, don't email it to me. i want you to take the writing, i want you to take work you do and i want you to go put it on a public facing blog where the whole world can see it. and i'll be part of the whole world and i'll come and i'll read what you wrote as well. and you can choose whether you want to openly license it or keep it copyrighted or whatever. you're not giving away your ip to the world somehow by putting this on a blog. i mean the wall street journal isn't giving away its content by putting online the publicly accessible place. but all the writing that you do,

put it out there, you know, where everyone can see it and i will just stick your blog in my rss reader and when you turn your homework in by posting it. it'll show up and i'll come read it. well there are a number of benefits to doing this. this is a homework assignment from a course i'm teaching this semester. and this semester three of the pieces of writing that have been done by students in this course have been picked up by a blogger named stephen downes. so i think many of you will know. stephen has a newsletter that goes out to something like thirty thousand people around the world interested in education and technology.

and so my students homework was then emailed out to thirty thousand people by a very well respected person in the field. and the effect of that is that next week everyone's writing is a little more thoughtful. everyone's writing is a little bit longer. and there's no kind of threat i could make to make that change in quality happen. there's no kind of cajoling or persuading or anything i could do to make them really be more thoughtful about how they write other than demonstrate to them that their writing is actually part of this

larger global conversation. that their peers are gonna read it. that other professionals are gonna read it and they want to represent themselves well. that one simple change of being a little bit more open, has had a huge impact on students and the kind of work that they've done. so that ones a success. now in terms of personalizing, this ones been a massive failure. for several years now i've put syllabi into a wiki and i've invited students. the syllabus is in a wiki. if you want to talk about something other than what i've proposed for us to talk about, if you want to talk about it in a different order,

if you want to weight the assignments a different way, i'm open to talking about all these things. i've taken a first stab at the syllabus. i think i did a pretty good job. i have a phd etc., etc., whatever. i think i did a pretty good job. but if you, you know, the syllabus is in a wiki for a reason. let's change it around. let's do things with it as we go based on your interest. you know in five years i don't think i've ever had a single student make a change to the syllabus. and i don't know if it's some weird power dynamic thing we have going on because i'm a teacher and they're a student or what. but i have yet to crack the nut on this one.

in terms of creating an openness, a couple years ago i taught a course about the design of learning objects, reusable education materials, and pedagogically what i really wanted to do in this course was i wanted to bring in five, six, seven, eight different kinds of people and set them around the table and have them argue with each other. and have the students just kind of sit back and listen to that argument happen. if you've been involved in the learning objects world at all, you know that there are technical standards perspectives on the way learning objects work. there are

instructional design perspectives on the way it worked. there are perspectives of people that work at the curriculum development companies that produce and try to sell these things. there all these different perspectives and i really wanted students to hear those arguments. but i couldn't figure out a way to get nine or ten people to come to my class twice a week for fifteen weeks. so over the summer i said, to myself, well, let's produce a script for something like a sitcom that will just involve those nine people sitting down and having these arguments. so i went through and i made up the cast of characters and i spent the summer sitting in

the office at my house writing, basically, the sitcom. laughing whenever i thought of something extraordinarily clever. my wife poking her head in the door and kind of shaking her head at me. you know who laughs at their own writing. so i put this online and again i put it in the wiki because i thought i'm sure at some point i missed a period or misspelled something and the students will correct that. and what ended up happening was about the third week of class i was re-reading the stuff that i had written over the summer trying to get ready to come into class, i found there was a new character in my sitcom that i didn't recognize.

and the graduate students had said, hey, you know, we haven't represented the public school teacher perspective here and a couple of us have that kind of experience and it needs to be represented in the conversation because i actually have some interesting things to say so they didn't talk to me. they didn't ask permission. they just got on the wiki and started writing in this new character. and at that point students were actually participating in producing the core instructional materials for the course. that other students were reading that they were being graded on. their assignments were being done from. to me this is just a classical example of what happens when you're

open. you think you know that certain sorts of good things will happen, but to the extent that you're open, you actually allow a wide range of other things to happen. and the unintended things, the unanticipated things are always the most interesting. and of all the experiments i've tried, this is far and away my favorite example of the way openness has really had an impact on what happens in my classroom. so each of those examples is probably two and a half or three years old at this point. about two years ago i asked myself, ok, i've been doing this for awhile now and i've tried some things. some things have worked. some things have failed. what could i do

be even more open? because i've seen now that when i was really open in this one way. this incredible thing happened where the students got in and started co-producing materials and writing in these other characters. because then they added a graduate student perspective at some point along the way as well. and i thought what can i do? how can i be even more open? so i started emailing friends i had at different programs like mine around the country and i said, i'm gonna teach this course called introduction to open education. there's not another course like it taught anywhere. and if your students would get a kick out of taking this course,

i'm gonna be teaching it in a classroom, but all the materials are gonna be available online. out in the open for free. and i also have all my students do all their writing out on a blog for free. something that's free and open. so if you've got a student that would like to take this class, just have them register for an independent study with you. send them over here. they can do the reading, do the writing. i'll look at their work and at the end of semester i'll send you a grade. and if you're comfortable with that, then we don't have to do all this cross registration. and trying to figure out how they register for credit at my school and how it will transfer to your school. and all these other kinds of things.

and so we had eight students in the class at usu, and we had about another ten around the us that signed up for independent study with a professor at their school. but then i thought well as long as i'm doing this, let's just really open it up. so i went on my blog and i announced to the world that hey, i'm doing this course this way and it you want to follow along, you're more than welcome. just come onto the wiki and put your name here and put the link to your blog so i know where you are what you're doing. and we ended up with about sixty people from all over the world participating in this course. there's a whole cohort of people from italy. there was another cohort in spain. there are folks in asia.

i didn't know how that would work. and to be honest, i was a little nervous about how much time it was gonna take to look at all their stuff when there was sixty people involved. but it turns out that when all the writing is in the open and you're assigning them to look at each other's stuff anyway, they do start to kind of self manage at some point. and i found that i was looking at things they were writing. kind of highlighting the best two or three things from the week. maybe one of them was from the students in my on campus class and maybe some weeks non of them were. in fact this group from italy, at the end of the course, got together and wrote and published a peer reviewed article about their experience in the course. and then

sent me the article. but the richness of the conversation and of course there were fun issues around english as second language that everybody enjoyed. and they were practicing their english and that was a benefit to them in addition to learning about open education. but to hear the italian perspective, to hear the greek perspective, to hear the spanish perspective to hear the chinese perspective was something that my students never, ever, ever would've been able to do in any other way. but if you talk to them about the benefit that accrued to them from these other people being involved in the class they'll tell you it was fabulous.

and it was another kind of unintended consequence of the kind of good things that can happen when you're just really open. so toward the end of the class i received an email from antonio feeney who was kind of the leader of the bandit group in italy. and he said, we've been through this course, we've done all the work, what are we gonna have to show for it? is there anyway we can get something? and i said, well of course you can't get credit. i mean you're not admitted to the university. you can't do whatever. what i'll do though is i'll make a certificate that doesn't have the university's name on it any where, but it says congratulations antonio, you completed intro to open education and i'll sign my name

at the bottom. and he said, really, that's great! i'd love that. and i said, well it's just gonna be you know, it's not even gonna be a piece of paper, it's gonna be a pdf. that says congratulations and has the course and has my name at the bottom. but there are a bunch of people it turns out that wanted that. and antonio told me later, he said, you know, i list that on my resume. i took that course. i took it from you. i have a piece of paper that says that i did. so word of this got around. which led jeff young to write this article in the chronicle.

[ laughter ] which my administration enjoyed thoroughly. it's actually pretty funny. one of the first conversations i had, now i did this experiment at usu and transitioned to byu shortly thereafter, but not there's not even correlation here, yet alone causation. but it's interesting one of the first conversations i had with the administration at byu, the provost pulled me aside shortly after

this article came out, and he said, you know, i think it's really interesting what you're doing. you do understand that when you give away that certificate you can't put the university's name on it anywhere. and i said, i would never come within a mile of the university's name appearing on a sheet of paper like this. and he says, well, that's appropriate. and as long as we understand that, i think these experiments you're doing are cool and full speed ahead. and i thought, wow! this is great. so i went full speed ahead. so i'm teaching this course again this semester.

and i wanted to try to understand i could help this larger number of students that would be participating. how i could help them support each other better. how they could really get something good out of the course without it taking an extra hour, extra two hours whatever of time every week. and as i looked around and thought around, i thought where can we see examples online of big groups of people getting together, but really supporting each others learning effectively. and i realized that massively multi-player games like world of warcraft are the best example of where this kind of thing happens.

because how else do you learn to kill dragons and farm gold and do whatever it is you do in these massively multi-player games. you get in there and you join a guild and those people teach you and you help them and you work together and you start from a person that can't even cut a flower down to somebody that can take on a castle siege over a period of time. through this mentoring, through the tutoring, through the collaboration in these guilds. so i re-designed this introduction to open education classes of massively multi-player game. primarily to be played by my on campus students, face to face with basically no technology mediation.

but also so they could be followed by students off campus. so basically i again spent some time during the holiday break saying if intro to open ed was a game, what would the character classes be? so you need somebody that understands how to produce html. how to produce video. how to make podcasts. all the production side of things. that person we'll call them the artisan. we need somebody that knows all the lore and the history and the politics and who all the people are and understands that part of it. and so we'll call that traveling minstrel the bard. the sustainability

issues of course you might imagine are big issues, let's say. how do you support giving things away for free over the long term. we need somebody who thinks a lot about sustainability. so we have a merchant class. and then of course you have issues of copyright, licensing, and in particularly defending the university brand. i had this as the palate in originally, but we came back to monk. i could just imagine the monk sitting down in his musty room reading the copyright code. trying to understand this creative commons license. so the way

the syllabus for this course designed is there's two or three or four training quests in the first couple of weeks. where you get some taste of what each of these different character classes would do. but then in week four you have to make a choice. the rest of the semester you're gonna play one of these classes. and at that point the syllabus forks. and each class has it's own set of quests that it has to do where you develop your own kind of expertise separate from what the others do. and the quests that you go on get harder and harder to the point that you have to guild form at some point. and you have to begin working together with other people or there's just no way you can possibly accomplish the task that's set out for you.

so i put this all online again. some of it in a blog. some of it in a wiki. thinking, without having learned my lesson the first time, that maybe people would insert a comma or fix a spelling error and one of the most interesting things that happened was someone decided that we needed a whole new class of character. the rogue is like an artisan, but instead of producing their own materials, they go around the web looking for things that by license are open, but are kind of trapped. they're trapped

technologically some how. so the goal of the rogue is to go about jail breaking all these supposedly open materials and making them so that other people can actually reuse them. absolutely brilliant. i didn't come up with it. so that's most of the testimony about how brilliant it is. but this class has been, has really been a great experience. we've had a large group from off campus play along with us again this semester. and we're just wrapping up. so i haven't had a chance to really sit down and summarize everything that's happened.

but i can say to you that it's been a great success. so having shared a couple of examples of ways we can think about being more open and ways that openness and open education resources can effect our classrooms on campus not just people out there in world. i just want to say really briefly that if we talk about a weather forecast for what's coming in higher education, i think disaggregation is one word that we all need to know and understand. so if you think about the areas we mentioned before, of content, of support services, of social

life, and of credentially, you can already start to see and i'm not talking about the private for profit space, already among public higher ed institutions we can see the pieces starting to pull apart. so you take something like mit open courseware. mit is a traditional school. has a campus. everything else. and yet this open courseware project, that they do, provides access to a whole class of content separate from being admitted to the university. separate from paying a tuition. separate from anything else. i don't know how many of you are familiar with

the western governors university. but the western governors university is an online university, in the west, established by the governors oddly enough. that is it works on a completely competency based model. what that means is, is it means that the western governors university offers no courses. they only offer assessments. they don't care where you learned it. they don't care how you learned it. they don't care how many times you came to class. they don't measure your learning by how long you can sit in a seat.

but they have really good psychometricians on staff that write very valid assessment instruments. and if you can come in and you can take one of these assessments and pass it, you know what you needed to know. and if you can pass the test, you get the grade, which get 's you the credit. and they're completely, they're fully accredited online university. now if there's a test that you want to take that you can't pass then given the nature of the involvement of the governors, wgu can refer you to utah state or to idaho state or to udub or some place else to go take an online course from them.

to get the preparation you need, but at the end of the day when you come back to wgu, they don't offer anything but assessments. so here's an example again of an accredited university where that credentialing piece has been pulled apart from the rest of it. in a world where content, now if we talk about the four profit providers and the other innovative things that are happening in the space, the story gets even more interesting. i'm trying to be conservative in what i'm talking about by talking about more traditional institutions of higher ed.

but as content pulls away and as assessment pulls away and as these things start to pull apart the real question that we have to ask ourselves and given that almost everybody in this room, i think, except my and danah, are penn staters, you know the question you have to ask about penn state. is what is the value of having all those things integrated in one institution? if it's true that different people can take the content and the support and the assessment and whatever and they can do those separately and focus on them and through that focus maybe do it at lower cost and maybe do it at better quality.

but if you want to keep the university in a way looking like it does now, you have to be able to tell the story to your potential students. what's the value of a general practitioner as opposed to an oncologist? why come to a place where all these things are bundled together? and i don't pretend to have the answer to that question for you. i think i'm barely starting understand what it is for brigham young. the story will be very different for you in your position, in the state. relative to the other offerings that there are here.

this is a really critical question. what's the value of keeping all these functions in one integrated organization? when we think about becoming more open you know, i was asking before how we do it? it should be pretty clear that if one guy like me can run all these crazy experiments just with some wikis and blogs that are out there available for free to be used. that opening isn't a technology problem. being more open. allowing more connectedness. allowing students to participate and be creative and co-create. in fact, not only is technology not a problem, but as we look around

the technology that we need is either open source or being hosted for free by someone else at no cost to us. so the technology is there. it's just like everything else. it's not a technology problem, this is a policy problem, largely. now you will get some faculty like me who will maybe not pay so much attention to policy and will do some experiments anyway, but the experimental environment is certainly a lot freer and more experiments happen when policy is structured in such a way to encourage these kinds of experiments.

but as i go around and talk to people, what i see happening is, i see higher ed acting much more like the music industry than anything else. and by that i mean that we're largely using policy to defend tradition. we're using our policy to kind of resist some of these movements. rather than using policy and creating policy frameworks and policy petri dishes where interesting things can grow. now having said that, this is the smokey the bear part of the message. only you can prevent

forest fires. you are the university is you. so you are the only ones who can really think about policy reform. and i love this quote by deming, you know i say here that ignoring the problem is not a strategy. deming said this, [ silence ] what happens if we don't change? if we don't change, student learning may suffer. if we don't close this daily divide between the rest of their lives and the ways that we work with them,

it will be increasingly hard to reach them. and as we do a poorer and poorer job of meeting their needs, enterprising young capitalists will appear that meet their needs better than we do. and we will compete with them for students. of which may eventually mean that your employment may suffer. when people go to google and they look for the course that they want to take and you're either not there at all or you're on page twenty-four of the results then

your employment may suffer. now in elliot's re-telling of beckett's experience here toward the end of his life, as he's waiting for the knights coming back to take him. he's trying to decide if he should run. if he should stay. he's having kind of a fight with church leadership. i guess you know the story. but he's tempted in a number of ways as to what he might do. and the last temptation that is suggested to him, is just stay here the knights will show up. they'll cut your head off. you'll be a martyr. you'll go straight to heaven. and then you'll be a martyr looking down at the king as he's crackling in the flames.

you know you'll get the last laugh. and this maybe the only i remember from high school english. beckett says to himself, "this last temptation is the greatest treason, to do the right deed for the wrong reason." so let me suggest to you that as you think about being more open and you think about innovating, please don't do it to avoid this doomsday scenario of possibly bad things happening to your institution. please do do it to fulfill the sacred trust that you have as a teacher. i'm highly encouraged by the prominent

place that oer seems to have in this draft of the current strategic plan. i hope that you'll take advantage of that. i hope that you'll leverage it. i hope that you'll do a variety of useful things for your students. and when you do the right thing for the right reason, then good things will happen. thank you very much. [ applause ]

Online Training Program


♪♪♪ all right, we're here ataxiom fitness in boise, idaho, for the workout overview video. now, today we're gonna be doingworkout one, which is chest, tri's, and abs. you're gonna be doing workout1 each week of the program. however, the rep ranges aregonna change each week in the microcycles. so we're in week 1.

this is gonna be the9 to 11 rep range. if you don't know what i'mtalking about, make sure you check out the training overviewvideo, where i break down the microcycles in the rep ranges. with each workout, we're gonnabe doing cardio acceleration, which basically means we'regonna be doing about a minute of cardio in betweenevery single set. so with the bench press, i'mgonna do a set of bench press, about a minute of cardio.

so here's the breakdown ofall the exercises that i'll be performing today. now let's get into thefirst one, flat bench press. all right, now we'regonna be doing four sets on the bench press. remember, for most of the largemajor muscle groups, we'll be doing four sets perexercise as the first exercise. other smaller muscle groups,like biceps, abs, calves, we'll be doing just three, but withthe major muscle groups, we'll

be doing four sets onthat first exercise. now, i start each workoutwith cardio acceleration. although i describe it as beingin between every set, we're gonna start the workout withcardio acceleration as just a general warm-up. now, i'm at the bench press,and the real key to cardio acceleration is not runningsomewhere across the gym. you're in a busy gym. you're gonna lose your bench.

so you want to incorporatecardio acceleration moves that keep you moving, keep your heartrate up, but you can do right here. one of the things i love todo with a bench is i just do step-ups, so i'm gonna start theworkout with step-ups with the rising knee, just to addsome more calorie-burning explosiveness to it. now, we're doing 9 to 11reps, so even as i get up to my working weight, that's not gonnabe that much weight in that rep

range, so one warm-upwill suffice for me today. but as you get heavier duringthe microcycles as they proceed, the weights get heavier, thereps go down, you're gonna require more warm-ups, two,maybe even three warm-ups to get up to your working weight. now remember, the point of yourwarm-up is not to fatigue the muscle, so i'm doing 9 to 11 reprange, going up to about 8 reps in quite an easy way. i like to do on the bench pressa bit more explosive movement on

the warm-ups. it helps to warm up thosefast-twitch muscle fibers which are gonna be critical on thebench press for moving heavier weight. now remember, the point of theworkout is to move right into cardio acceleration,then to the next set. so the only reason i'm stoppingright now is to give you these tips, but normally i'd be rightback to doing my bench step-ups. i'll be doing about a minute ofcardio acceleration during this

workout. i like to use a timerright there on my iphone. if you don't have a smart phonethat has a timer on it, use any timer. make sure you're hitting thatfull minute, and then, boom, right into your next set. now, once the set's done, youmove right back into your cardio acceleration. there's no rest.

your rest is thecardio acceleration. now, obviously you want tochange your weight as quickly as possible, but one tip irecommend is that when you do change your weight, do itafter the cardio acceleration. that way, you get a littlebit of a breather before your weight's set where itreally matters most. i always recommend havingan ipod or other personal music players, so you haveyour favorite music going. it's gonna make a big differencein your strength and your

endurance during thesefast-paced workouts. now, you're only worryingabout the number of reps you complete on the firstset of each exercise. you're only resting about aminute between working sets. in that minute you're doingcardio acceleration, so you're not gonna be able to stick withthat rep range as the sets go up. keep the weight the same,regardless of how few reps you get.

all right, that's the fourthand final set of the bench press. we're gonna move on to thesecond exercise, incline dumbbell presses. from here on out, we'll bedoing three sets per exercise for chest. now, i'll be doingcardio acceleration as well. my cardio acceleration, sincei'm right here at the dumbbell rack, is gonna bedumbbell cleans.

i'll get into more detailon that as we get into them. but a quick tip i want to giveyou guys is to make sure that you add the "shortcut to shred"program to your body calendar on your bodyspace account, andthen sync it to your phone. that way, you've got theworkouts right there on your phone. you don't have to check'em on your computer. you can bring it to the gymor check them right before you start your workout.

that accountability will helpyou stay consistent with the program, and that's howyou're gonna get the best gains. you can do both body weightexercises, like step-ups on the bench, as we did on the benchpress, but don't be afraid to incorporate weights intoyour cardio acceleration. when it comes to choosingweight, it's really hit or miss in finding whatworks best for you. my tip is to go as light aspossible at the beginning, because look, you're tryingto do this for a full minute.

even though this is an explosiveexercise, it's gonna help you build power, you're not focusingon the power aspect here in the cardio acceleration. you're focusing on burningcalories, so start extremely light. now remember, this is the firstworkout for chest during the week. we're gonna be doing twoworkouts for each body part. first workout for chest isall multi-joint exercises.

these are yourmajor mass-builders. they allow you to use moreweight, and using more weight places more overload on thepec muscles, the chest, and that helps to stimulatemore muscle growth. all right, we're on to ourthird and final exercise for chest, the declinesmith machine bench press. for my cardio accelerationduring this set, i'm gonna simply run in place. it's probably the easiest formof cardio acceleration that you

can do. it works anywhere, regardless ofhow tight of a spot you're in. now, as you'll notice, i have aflat bench here, because axiom does not have an adjustabledecline bench that we can bring over. so you've got two options ifthis is the same case in your gym. if you have a standard declinebench press setup for a free weight barbell, goahead and use that.

swap that out, or you coulddo what i'm gonna do here, and that's simply using a flatbench, but i'm gonna get in what we call a bridge position,my feet up on the bench. my body's gonna be angled andi'm essentially gonna create my own decline. now, we've already done twochest exercises, so my chest, it's completely warmed up. i don't need to go into awarm-up set, especially with this 9 to 11 rep range.

if you want, as the weight getsheavier during microcycles two and three, you can do a warm-up. just remember, you do a warm-upset, you don't rest between warm-ups. you've got another setof cardio acceleration. now, those of you who arefamiliar with the anatomy of the pecs, you'll recognize the factthat we're hitting all three major areas. we started with aflat bench press.

flat pressing movements, mainlyhit the middle area of the pecs. then we moved on toincline dumbbell press. that helps hit moreof the upper pec area. and now at a decline, the armsare gonna be coming down closer to the sides of body, as opposedto up on the flat and up on the incline. that's gonna hit more of thelower portion of the pecs. so we're hitting allthose muscle fibers. any time we're interested inmaximizing muscle growth, we

want to focus on hitting asmany muscle fibers in a specific muscle as possible. all right, done with chest. now we're gonna head straightover to dips for triceps. we're gonna do four sets ofdips focusing on triceps, and i'll get into the distinctionbetween doing dips to focus on the triceps versus chestwhen we get into that exercise. my cardio acceleration move hereis gonna be kettle bell swings, or in this case,dumbbell swings.

we don't have kettle bells here. if your gym does have a kettlebell, obviously kettle bell swings make a great move. but this little adjustmentshows you how to do it with a dumbbell. now remember, it's importantto track your progress on the "shortcut to shred" program. we're changing up weight everyweek, and we have two different periodization schemes, thelinear periodization, and then

the reverse periodization. so there's a lot of variableshere with your weight and rep ranges. now, to focus on doing dipsfor the triceps, the two key things you want to focus on areyour elbows and your body, your torso. with the elbows, you want tocome in as close, keep them as close to your sides now. this one flips out, so if iwent out, this would be more for

chest. i'm gonna keep it in, so i keepmy elbows close to my body, and then when i dipdown, i keep them close. and then the other thing i'mdoing is i'm keeping my body as upright as possible. instead of holding thedumbbell by the handle, you're gonna hold it just with yourfingertips on the weight plate, and then you're gonnaswing it between your legs. now remember, all the motion iscoming from my hips as i swing

it up. i'm not using my shoulders. i'm not using my arms. i'm just pullingup the dumbbell. that momentum is all from theexplosions that extend at the knees and the hips. now, i recommend, although ihave it listed as the standard barbell close-grip bench press,that if you have access to a smith machine, consider doingthe close-grip bench press on a

smith machine. and the reason is that you'vejust finished your chest and then moved on todips for triceps. all multi-joint exercises allinvolve both the chest and the triceps, so by the time you gethere, your triceps are fried. it's gonna be tough to move anyweight or focus on the triceps. any time you're doing the smithmachine with a bench, you want to make sure that you have thebench set up perfectly in the middle of the smith machine.

now, you can just simply dropthe bench in here and try to eyeball it, but you're neverquite sure how even it is in the middle. you want to make sure thatboth arms are supplying the same force and workingat the same angle. so an easy way to do that isjust drop the bar all the way down to the bench, and then thatgives you a better idea of how close you've gotit in the middle. you can get it right in themiddle and make sure that each

arm is applying thesame amount of force. my cardio acceleration is gonnabe a unique move that is smith machine power cleans, but we'llget into that a little more after my working set. my close grip isshoulder-width apart. there is a study that actuallyshowed that shoulder-width incorporated just as much of thetriceps muscle fibers as if you went closer. the only thing that going closerdid was put more stress on the

wrists. so save your wrists. the other thing i liketo use is an open grip. it's safe on the smith machinebecause the bar's guided, so you don't have to worry about itslipping out of your hand. but when you're using an opengrip, it allows you to press with the palms, and thatcan help you focus more on contracting the triceps versususing chest and shoulders like in a normal bench press.

now, to do the smith machinepower cleans, drop the weight all the way down. gonna take a littlebit of weight off. now, most people, "why would youdo a power clean in the smith machine?" well, it's actually fairlybeneficial for those who aren't really accustomed to doing powercleans, because with the smith machine, the bar is on a track. now, it's gonna keep the barclose to your body, which is

exactly what you want to dowhen you do power cleans. a lot of people end updoing more of a curling motion, curling the barin front of them. that's not what you want to do. you want to pull the barstraight up to your shoulders. using the smith machine allowsyou to sort of practice that movement, because the bar'salready guided, so you can't get out of that range of motion. remember, the power clean isan explosive move, so you want

to do a bit of a jump asyou throw the weight up. this is a full-body exerciseusing your legs and your upper body to throw theweight up there. keep the weight light so thatyou can try to go for a minute. if you only get 30seconds, that's fine. this one's very intense. you really get theheart rate going. all right, we finished upwith chest and triceps, and now we're moving right into abs.

and remember, the only reasoni'm resting is to talk to you and give you some tips. otherwise, we'd be movingright into the next exercise. in this case, it'sgonna be the rope crunch. focuses more on the upper abs. later on, we'll be doing thesmith machine hip thrusts that focus more on the lower abs. so in this workout, we'rehitting upper and then lower. later in the week, we'll alsoinclude exercises that'll hit

the obliques aswell, and even the core. remember, it's important tofocus on all the muscles of the midsection. my cardio acceleration exercisein between for this one is just gonna be a fast step-up. all right, we're back overhere at the smith machine for smith machine hip thrusts. those of you who followed my"shortcut to size" know this exercise well.

it's not a pretty move, but itis the best way to target the lower abs because you're allowedto add resistance, and we know that adding resistance isimportant when even training abs. you want to periodize all musclegroups, including the abs. that's the best way to get themost muscular development, and the lower abs is that tough areato bring up for a lot of people, so this is a great exercise fortargeting the lower abs and help to create better developmentin those lower muscle fibers.

it's also a greatcore exercise as well. now, like the rope crunches,we're gonna do three sets of smith machine hip thrusts,and in between, my cardio acceleration move here isgonna be back to doing the bench step-ups, but here we're doingit on the adjustable bench that i placed here atthe smith machine. now, this is the finalexercise of the workout. we've only get three setsand three sets of cardio acceleration left to go.

being that this is yourfirst workout using cardio acceleration, non-stoppace, you're gonna be winded. trust me, you're not gonna befeeling good at this point, but you're gonna feel real goodwhen the workout's over, and you'll notice, as the days goby--not even the full week, by the end of the week, you'llnotice that the workouts are getting easier as your bodyadapts to this non-stop pace using the cardio acceleration. actually, the cardioacceleration, you'll find that

your recovery afterthe workouts are better. so that's it for the"shortcut to shred" workout overview video. now remember, "shortcut toshred" is not just about getting shredded. yes, that's a critical part ofthis program, but you're also gaining more lean muscle andstrength, so it's critical that you follow up each workoutwith your post-workout shake. you want to get those criticalnutrients into your muscle as

fast as possible. that's gonna aid recovery, boostmuscle growth, and even aid fat loss. if you don't know what i'mtalking about, you need to go back to the "shortcut toshred" landing page and watch my supplement overview video andread the supplement overview page so you're making sureyou're taking the proper supplements at the right times. remember, on the "shortcut toshred" landing page, each day of

the program is broken down intofull detail, the daily workouts, content, and tips fromme, even on your rest days.

Online Colleges That Accept Financial Aid


[theme music] president barack obama:when we study together, and we learn together,we work together, and we prosper together. ms. kimberly williams: goodmorning, and good evening, to all our viewers joiningus from around the world. i'm kim williams, and i workin the bureau of education and cultural affairs at theu.s. department of state

here in washington, dc. my job is to help people fromall around the world come to the united states to study. i'm excited to be participatingin this webchat with you today, and to talk about howinternational students can finance their studiesin the united states. we have with us someexperts from a few different educational institutions to helpanswer your questions about how you can pay for your studies.

first off, i would like tointroduce joan zanders, who has almost three decades ofexperience in financial aid. she's currently the directorof financial aid at northern virginia community college. she has a lot ofadvice to share, and can talk about communitycolleges and how they can make college affordable for studentswho might not otherwise be able to pursue highereducation in the u.s. sitting next to heris jennifer jocelyn,

director of george washingtonuniversity's colonial central. colonial central is astudent services center at george washington to helpstudents and their families navigate the university'sfinancial aid, billing, and registration procedures. i also want to welcome avery special group joining us from ulaanbaatar in mongolia. thank you so much forparticipating today. we will be coming back toyou throughout the program

for your questions. i know there are otherviewing groups gathered-- at u.s. embassies, americanspaces, and other places as well. please send in your picturesand we will show them during the program. lastly, if you havequestions that you would like joan orjennifer to address, please ask them in the chatspace next to the video player,

or on twitter using thehashtag #studyintheusa. we'll try to answer asmany of your questions about financing yourstudies as possible. and we also provideanswers and links to resources in the chat space. there's also a visaexpert our chat space today to help answer any visarelated questions you may have. so, i'm going to startthe conversation off with a question.

when we talk aboutcost of setting, what are the variouscomponents to that cost for undergraduateand graduate degrees? director joan zanders:thank you, kim. and greetings, everyone. each college starts bybuilding a cost of attendance budget for students, and thecosts are generally averages. and depending onyour spending habits, you may spend well more thanthat, or less than that.

but the components of thatcost of attendance budget are average cost fortuition and fees, and most collegesare going to look at the average number ofcredits taken by their full time students, which wouldbe 12 or more credits. in addition tothose costs, there are also books and supplies,transportation, room and board, and personalmiscellaneous expenses. most budgets are calculatedon a nine-month basis,

and then there'sa separate budget if the student is planningto attend a summer session. keep in mind,those are averages, and most of the time, thosecost of attendance budgets are going to be initially forresident students within state tuition, if it happens tobe a public institution. so you have to look atwhat the difference in cost is for students who arenon-resident students, and make sure you havethat right budget.

ms. williams: great, thank you. let's a few questionsfrom our online viewing group in mongolia. mongolia, do you havea question for experts about financing your studies? zoyanga: hi, nice to meet you. my name is zoyanga. i'm very happy to be hereand get some advices. last year, i completedmy bachelor's degree,

and i want to continue myeducation to the next level. and my questionhere is that what are my chances to be fullyfunded for a graduate level? thank you. ms. williams: a verypopular question. so i believe thequestion is, you would like to pursuea graduate degree, and what is thepossibility of you getting full funding for this pursuit?

director jennifer jocelyn:thank you for your question. greetings, everyonefrom mongolia. that is a great question. graduate funding canbe varied by school. so it really depends on whatthe school has in funding. i think your best betfrom a graduate level is to first to identifywhich program at which school institution thatyou're interested in. and i would actuallysuggest reaching out

to the faculty to talkwith them about what sort of fundingopportunities are available throughthat department. again, it does varyfrom school to school, but that is a great first step. i think you also want to thinkabout, if you're possibly looking to get loans orthings of that nature, i think you may alsowant to consider private loans throughpotentially a u.s.

bank, or another lender. and maybe if you dohave someone in the u.s. who can co-sign foryou for that loan, that's another option ifyou're unable to find or locate any funding opportunities thatwould be in the form of grants. director zanders:i would also add to that even thoughwe would love to be able to fund everysingle student, full time and the full cost,we don't even do

that for most ofthe students who are within the united states. the funding is justnot that plentiful. there are opportunities,and especially if you are strong ina particular field, and there might be anassistantship with a professor, or research assistants,something of that nature. but it isn't verycommon that someone is fully funded for all costs.

ms. williams: greatquestion, mongolia. do you have anotherquestion for us? boina: hello. my name is boina. and i graduated asa dentist last year. and first of all, i want tothank you for all the people who are organizingthis event, and also thank you for all of youjust giving us an opportunity to ask questions.

so my question is, iwant to study my master's degree in the unitedstates, and how can i get the scholarshipsand grants and can you give me the informations? ms. williams: ok,so specifically about grants and scholarshipsfor graduate study in the u.s. director jocelyn: i thinkwe can sort of reiterate that previous questionthat was just asked. again, as joan hasmentioned, there

are not a lot of fullyfunded opportunities. however, again, i thinkyou would definitely want to reach out tothe department you're interested in. and you said you werestudying dentistry. i would certainly contactschools and ask questions, and just see whattype of opportunities they have through the school. and again, as assistantshipsand research assistantships,

i think you may be surprised bywhat opportunities are there. and again, i thinkyou really just need to get out there andresearch and contact different departmentsto get more information. director zanders: therealso is a possibility, depending on yourvisa status, of aid that would be throughthe federal government in the united states. and for most ofyou, i'm guessing

we're talking f1 status,which would be student visas. but if someone happens to haveany type of permanent resident visa in the unitedstates, you might be eligible for federal funding,or even some state funding with different collegesin the united states. but if you are on anf1 visa, or a j visa, normally then you would beresearching each college to see what kindof assistantships and institutional grantsmight be available.

ms. williams: ok, great. all right, let's get backto some more questions from our online viewers. many of our viewers, likemohammed sami from egypt, are asking aboutwhat sort of funding is available for graduatestudies in the u.s. what sort of post-graduateoptions are there for funding? director zanders: iwould say one thing that we haven'ttalked about yet,

is for each student to go tothe website of the colleges that they're considering, andlook to see what's out there. again, as jenniferhas reiterated, there are opportunities forgraduate studies in the united states, and evenpostgraduate studies. but you're going tohave to do some work to get to thoseanswers, and primarily with each institution,and with the departments within that institution,to see what opportunities

might be there for you. director jocelyn: and toadd to that i would say, there are a lot of--if you have to apply for those typesof opportunities, i'd be very consciousof the deadline for those applications. and they can be 12to 18 months out. so i think if you'rethinking about trying to find those typeof opportunities,

you have to startvery soon if you're planning to come and try tocome to the united states in the next 12 to 18 months. director zanders: andreally do the work. do the homework,do the research, and try to findthose opportunities. ms. williams: aviewing group in china wants to know, whatis the difference between financialaid and scholarships?

director zanders: financial aidcan be grants, scholarships, loans, work-study--anything that contributes toward the cost of education isconsidered to be financial aid. normally when we talk aboutfinancial aid in the united states, we're referring tofederal aid and state aid. but then all of thoseoutside resources-- sometimes businesses offer grants,a number of scholarships are available, everysingle institution has scholarships available.

you could also researchthose on websites to see what might beavailable for you. but anything that contributestoward the cost of education is considered tobe financial aid. scholarships are normallyfor specific reasons, for specific characteristics. they may be byprivate donors, they may be from theinstitution itself. scholarships canbe for merit, they

can be for specific skills. maybe you're strong inmath, or strong in music. or we have a donorwho might want you to be from aparticular country, and they mightfund on that basis. but it could be merit,it could be need-based. and if need is required,then the very premise of an internationalstudent is that you're coming with your own funding.

so for you to show need mightbe a little bit challenging. ms. williams: great. later from tunisia writesthat he needs a budget to complete his studies inthe u.s. and onar from turkey writes that he had to leavehis study program in the u.s. because he could notsupport his studies. what advice would yougive to them and others about financialplanning and budgeting for studying in the usa?

director jocelyn: i can goahead and take that one. i'll try and take that one. that is an excellent question. as joan had alreadytalked about, the cost of attendance-- comingto the united states to study can be a very costly venture. and part of theprocess of thinking about coming to theunited states to study is that financialplanning piece.

it is an investment. so if you are an undergraduate,or you're a graduate student, you really need to bethinking about this as an investmentfor several years. so you're investing in anoutcome which is that degree. i would definitely considerlooking at different budgeting tools. as joan had mentioned,the cost of attendance does include unbilledexpenses, such as

those personal miscellaneousexpenses, books and supplies-- those types of costs arenot on your student account. and so you need to considerhaving funding for those. and so i would say, learn how totrack your expenses each week. start with what doyou spend on food? or what do you spend onyour rent each month? to help you start to see howyour money is being spent, so that you cansee whether you're overspending andunderspending, and then you

can make adjustments. and i would suggest lookingat such tools-- there's a great one called mint. you can go to mint.com. and that's one that's verypopular with our students these days, to help them managetheir money while they're here in the states. director zanders:and always plan for unexpected expenses,because they're going to happen.

and as jennifer said, personalmiscellaneous expenses can be huge or small dependingon your spending habits. and the costs of attendancedon't necessarily allow you to live ina luxurious lifestyle. so plan beyond what thatcost of attendance budget is set up by thecollege, because those are minimal expenses. we use a low nine-month cost ofattendance budget for our area. washington, dc isa wonderful area

to live in-- so many,many opportunities. it's also a little moreexpensive than some other areas of the country. the midwest is lessexpensive, the southeast is less expensive. some areas within individualstates are less expensive. but you also have to considerwhat is the program of study that you're planning totake, and then is the area an area where you can becomfortable, and learn

from the area as well? director jocelyn: and to justadd one more note on that, i think it'simportant to remember that the costdoesn't necessarily mean it's better quality. the higher cost doesn'tmean better quality. so i think whenyou're really thinking about planning financially, lookat the best program for you. and it may be at apublic institution,

versus a private institution. and that can help youmanage the overall long term cost of your degree. director zanders: asjennifer mentioned, i come from a community college. and community colleges aretypically far less expensive than other institutions. and with northern virginiacommunity college, students have guaranteedadmissions agreements

to the four-year schoolsif they complete at nova, as we call ourselves, with acertain grade point average. so you can move fromthe community college to the public institution,or to a private institution, having saved a whole lot ofmoney in those first two years. and that can helptremendously as well. ms. williams: one of ouronline viewers in china asked, caninternational students apply for financialaid using fafsa,

and can you explainexactly what fafsa is? director zanders: weuse a lot of acronyms fafsa-- the letters standfor free application for federal student aid. as i mentioned earlier, if youhappen to have a certain visa type that would give youpermanent resident status, or a protectedstatus, then you may be eligible to applyusing the fafsa. but typically, a student hasto be either a u.s. citizen,

or a permanent residentnoncitizen in order to use the fafsa. anybody can fillit out-- it doesn't mean you're going tohave any eligibility. and normally you have to havethat social security number, and you have to have somesort of citizenship status that is in a permanentbasis in order to get financial aidfor using the fafsa. ms. williams: our viewinggroup, an irc in algiers,

an online viewer,tomic, asked, is it possible to studyand work in the u.s.? will a studenthave time for both? director zanders: again, ithink it depends on the student. there are some students thatare better if they work, because then theirtime is at a premium, and they use their time wisely. there are other students thati would not advise to work, because they need everymoment for studying

and for class time. typically, statistics showus that if a student works fewer than 14 to20 hours a week, they're going to persistat a higher rate. it is possible towork and go to school, and most of our students do. there are jobs available oncampus for many students-- not every student. and the last i knew,international students were not

allowed to work off-campusuntil they'd been in the states for a year, and thenthey had to work in areas that were supportingof their program of study. but there couldbe jobs on campus. we have an internationalwork-study fund that we used to helpstudents who might be in some sort of crisis. like a few years ago,with arab spring, we had students who couldn't getmoney out of their countries.

so we set up a fundto hopefully help with some of that crisis time. we also have somework-study that is not based on federal guidelines. other campuses mightbe the same thing. and working on campushelps tremendously, because thesupervisors on campus are not going to requireyou to work when you're supposed to be in class time.

that would be theideal, i think, if a student canfind a job on campus. director jocelyn: and, justto clarify, as you said, based on gw, it sounds likestudents on f1 visas may work. if you are goingto be in the states on a different typeof visa, i would speak with your internationalservices office at the school that you're interested in,just to ensure that if you're interested in working,that you would actually

be eligible to work. and also based onthat, you would be eligible to work upto 20 hours per week while classes arein session, and then 40 hours per week duringofficial class breaks. again, if you're interested inworking while you're studying. director zanders:but again, there are not always going to bejobs available for everyone. so it's importantfor you get out

there, apply for those jobs. if you're on anassistantship, that is a job. you're working forthe college, you're working for a professoron a particular project, or with a particular class,and that becomes your job. some of our viewers areasking about financial aid for specific fields. in particular, they'reasking about financial aid for medical studies and tourism.

director zanders: as i'dmentioned previously, there are a lot ofscholarships out there for a variety of fields. again, you're going tohave to do the research, check the websites, checkwith your departments when you're applyingto a college, and see what's out there. and the earlier youapply, the better. at nova, as an example, wehave two different rounds

of scholarship applications--one in the fall, and one in the spring. and they're fordifferent purposes. most of our scholarships in thefall are nursing scholarships, so those would befor medical fields. other colleges may havesimilar characteristics and similarscholarship searches. director jocelyn:yeah, i would also-- if you're lookingat medical studies,

i would again, firstfind those programs that you're most interested. at gw, for instance,our medical school has its own financialaid office that is different than the largerschools' financial aid office. so you're definitelygoing to want to see if your medicalschool of interest does have its own financialaid office that you can contact and ask questions of them.

director zanders: there aresome national websites as well, like-- director jocelyn: fastweb. director zanders:and i think we're going to show those websitesin a moment on the screen. but there are a number ofwebsites with scholarship searches available. and again, you haveto do your homework. you have to get out there andlook to see what's available.

and then apply, make sureyou meet the deadlines for each of those scholarships. and you have as good opportunityfor those as anyone else. you just have to do the work. ms. williams: great questions. please keep askingthem in our chat space, or on twitter using thehashtag #studyintheusa. let's go back to ourviewing group in mongolia for a few more questions.

makwala: hello. my name's makwala. i'm in my last yearof high school. and i'm interested inwhat kind of financial aid and scholarship are availablefor undergraduate students and program, especiallyin architecture field. ms. williams: ok. so you're askingabout financial aid in undergraduateprograms, especially

the architectural field. correct? ok, perfect. director zanders:ok, i think we've answered that in generalterms, but it's not much differentfor undergraduates than it is for graduatesfor f1 students. there may be scholarships,private grants available, institutional grants available.

but you need to get outthere, look at the websites, do those national searches,find out what type of aid is available at eachinstitution, what types of scholarships are available. and then make sure you haveapplied by those deadlines. if you have thatvisa status that would allow you to applyfor u.s. federal grants, or state grants, that wouldbe a whole different set of financial aid opportunities.

but i'm guessing mostof you, being f1 status, would need to look for privategrants and scholarships. director jocelyn:to add to that, looking into the internationalstudent scholarships area-- for instance, at gw,if you come there and you complete afull year of courses, you could then potentiallyapply for institutional grant assistance. as well as, i haveheard at many schools

there are grants forinternational students based on your performanceon act and sat scores. so if you're planningto take those to be admittedinto a u.s. school, they may in facthave an application for an international grantbased on your performance on those different tests. mongolia, do you haveanother question for us? shintur: yes.

hi guys. my name is shintur. and i want to study inusa in bachelor degree, and i'm interested in vocalist. so i heard that inart majors, it's really hard to get scholarship. so is it possible to getscholarship in vocalist? ms. williams: in what? i'm sorry, can you repeat thefield one more time, please?

shintur: vocalist. singer. ms. williams: oh, vocalist! wonderful. ok, great. ok, so you're lookingfor specific funding to help you in an undergraduatedegree as a vocalist. any advice? director zanders: there aremusic scholarships available.

again, depending onwhich institution you're planning toattend, there may be music scholarships available. normally, they wouldrequire an audition, and you would have to preparesome sort of tape, audition tape, for them initially. and then they maywant you to appear before they finalizethe scholarship, and do a performance.

but some schools do offerscholarships for music. and they may or maynot be need-based. they could bestrictly merit-based. is that true at gw? do you know whether youhave anything like that? director jocelyn:i know that there are different opportunities. i've seen students whohave pep band scholarships. i haven't seen anything at gwin particular for vocalists,

but that just may mean thati haven't seen that when i've been counseling our students. but again, as joanhas reiterated, i think reallydoing your research and your homework aboutwhat type of opportunities are available inthat music department at that specific school. or there are actuallymusic schools. so i would say, reallydo that research

and find one that you thinkmight be a good fit for you. ms. williams: a viewerasked, how do we narrow down our research for scholarships? director jocelyn:that's a big question. it always helps if you havean idea of where you're planning to attend, becausethose institutions have their own sets of scholarships. but just like at nova,we also advertise those national websites.

and if you're looking for aparticular type of scholarship, those search sites willhelp you narrow down what types of scholarships,and which scholarships might be available to you. again, it's doingyour research, knowing what it is you're lookingfor to start with, checking with thedifferent institutions, going to their websites,using the scholarship websites for those nationalsearch options,

and then justfollowing up with it. i always tell students, knowhow to write a good essay. and don't just think that weunderstand, because we don't. and the scholarshipcommittees that are viewing thoseapplications are going to look very criticallyat your essay question. and what have you doneoutside of just going to school as well? sometimes those factorsplay a big role in whether

or not receive a scholarship. ms. williams:that's a great point about the essay, becauseour next question asks, what are some usefultips for writing a good financialscholarship application? so is there anythingyou'd like to add to that? director jocelyn:i would say maybe, if you are going to beapplying for scholarships and they're askingspecific questions,

i would look to finda way to connect your personal uniqueexperience to whatever question they're asking. you want to show thatyou're a really good fit for that particularscholarship, and will do well if you are to receive it, wouldbe a suggestion i would have. ms. williams: our viewinggroup at utech lab athens ask, will financial aid cover bothtuition and living expenses? director zanders: the favoriteanswer in financial aid

is, it depends. and it really does depend onthe amount of the financial aid, and what it'sdesignated to cover. there are some scholarships,and some aid types, that are for tuition fees only. and then there are otherscholarships and aid types that aregentle enough, they can cover any of thecosts of education while you're attending school.

so again, it dependson the type of aid. ms. williams: alot of viewers are asking about financialaid for english. can you talk a little bitabout funding for studying english in the u.s.? director jocelyn: the firstquestion i would have is, is this an englishprogram to help you gain the requisitelevel of english speaking to attend a program?

when it comes toa non-degree, i'm not certain of fundingsources to assist you. however, there may bein-country opportunities to support english learning. so maybe before you evenattend a school in the u.s., you might want to look into whatyour local in-country resources are. have you heard of any fundingopportunities for english? director zanders: not forenglish as a second language.

i know there are some workforcedevelopment programs that may be a little less expensive. but most of thetime, if a student is applying for financialaid in the united states, they should bedegree-seeking students. if you're attending anenglish as a second language, or as we call them,esl class, prior to attending aprogram of study, it depends on the levelof english where

you're starting before you canbe considered program-placed in a regular program of study. if you're alsoprogram-placed, and just taking esl to improvewhat you already know, then there is possible funding. but if you're starting fromscratch with an english as a second languageprogram, i'm not aware of funding thatwould be available for that. again, as jennifersaid, there might

be something evenin your own country if there is encouragementto learn english, that could be available to you. ms. williams: one ofour online viewers asked, does financial aidcover online programs? director zanders: it canin the united states. i don't know that there wouldbe an online program that would be covered while you'reliving in your home country, taking an online program.

but in the united states,we do cover online classes. i think there are somerestrictions though-- are there not?-- on thenumber of online classes that an internationalstudent can take. director jocelyn: thereare online degree programs. but again, i'm notsure if there's funding forinternational students to complete thoseonline program. director zanders: andi do think-- check

with your embassy, orwith the individuals who are answering thequestions about visas, but i think there are somerestrictions on how many online credits you can takeand be considered an f1 student inthe united states. ms. williams: ranginafrom tajikistan is asking about financialaid for family members. what funding is availablefor students who might be bringing families with them?

director zanders:unfortunately, i'm not aware of anything that wouldbe available for the family. the cost of attendancecovers room and board, but it's designated as roomand board for the student. and because you'rerenting a place, you may be able toaccommodate family members with that same rent. but as far as feedingthe whole family, or providing transportationcosts or health costs,

or anything of thatnature for families, the only thing thatcould be a possibility is if a research institutionmaybe wants you badly enough that they're willing tofund more than just the cost for the student. but i'm not aware of anythingthat covers families. ms. williams: sholiain baku american center writes that technicaluniversities in the united states are expensive.

do universities helpsecure internships for international students,and how long will it take for a student to obtainhis or her intern employment? director jocelyn: as faras i know, i think-- again, this comes down to doing yourhomework before you come. i know this is soundinglike the same thing that we've been repeating,but it's really the truth. we're speaking in generalitiesabout schools here in the u.s., and i think it can bevery different from school

to school. so if you're very interestedin getting internships, i would definitely, again,reach out to those universities that you're interested in, seehow strong their internship programs are, so that you candetermine whether that would be a good fit foryou if you were admitted to that institution. director zanders: now,there's some graduate programs where an internship maybe available immediately,

if you're acceptedinto that program. but if you're in anundergraduate program, most of the schoolsthat i have worked with don't have internships untila little later in the program. they might be junior year,senior year, not starting with the freshman year. and because of that, then theinternship might be delayed. ms. williams: ok, we havea lot of viewers joining in from around the world, includingcentral and eastern europe.

our viewing group at theamerican center in baku asks, are there any specificscholarships for students from the post sovietunion countries? director zanders: i think thatwould be up to a private donor. i'm not aware of any that arespecific to post soviet union countries. but again, there couldbe a donor out there, or someone in thoseinternational searches, that is specifying a scholarshipfor students from post soviet

union countries. once again, do the research, dothe searches on the websites, and see what might be out there. director jocelyn: yeah ithink there's-- one thing to understand aboutuniversities here in the u.s., is most universities,if not all, have somethingcalled an endowment. and that helps us tofund, not only the school, but also studentsand scholarships.

and i have seen somevery interesting, different specific scholarshipsthat you wouldn't even imagine we would have. so if you are from a postsoviet union country, it's very possible thatsomeone from your area went to that particularschool, and happened to have had such a greatexperience that they created an endowed scholarship. so it really is worth askingthose type of questions

to see if your uniqueexperience, and your uniqueness in your ownapplication, matches you with something just like that. so it's worth askingthose questions. ms. williams: one of ouramerican corners in tajikistan asked, does toefl and gpa playa role in getting financial aid? director zanders: toeflscores are the scores that would help you knowwhat level of english, where you need to start with english.

and i'm guessing untilyou're in a program of study, the scholarshipswould be limited. gpa does play a rolefor most scholarships in the united states, ifthere's any merit attached to the scholarship at all. anything additional from gw? director jocelyn: no, i thinkgpa plays a big role, i think. when students are admittedto gw is when they are offered merit scholarships.

and so, the strongeracademic application you submit, there ishopefully more of a chance that you'll receive amerit scholarship that would in fact be-- for instance,at gw, it's for four years. maybe five depending uponthe length of your program. so, i would say do the best youcan to perform academically, and hopefully therewill be those type of opportunities at theschool you're interested in. director zanders: i wouldalso caution students to check

the length of a scholarship. if you receive ascholarship, there are some institutionsthat will give you a scholarship for one year. it may or may not be renewablefor the following years. so if you're countingon that scholarship to pay for all ofyour years, make sure you know what the termsof the scholarship are. find out whether you have tohave a certain grade point

average for it to continue. or find out if it is evenintended to continue more than that first year. that can make a bigdifference in whether or not you can afford to go to school. director jocelyn: true,and i have actually counseled a lot ofstudents who may not have been performingacademically once they are inschool, and then

risk losing the very importantscholarship that they have earned upon admission. so getting here is one thing,but performing when you're here is another. director zanders: absolutely. ms. williams: before wemove on to more questions, i want to give a shoutout to achyderabad, india, and american corners in tajikistan. does applications for financialaid affect acceptance rates?

director zanders: itdoesn't in our school, and it's not supposed to atany school, but i know it can. ms. williams: it can, buti think a lot of schools are what they callneed-blind upon admission, which means that they're notlooking at your level of need. now, this dependsalso on whether you're applying for additional fundingif you are a u.s. citizen or a permanent resident. but i have seen thatat different schools,

they have different policies. director zanders: there also isa limit on the amount of money that each institutionhas to spend. there are some of thehigher cost colleges that have huge foundations,and they may have more available funding. but most schoolshave a limit on what they can spend fromtheir foundations, and from theirinstitutional sources.

so it could be that afterso many financial aid students apply, they just don'thave any additional funding. it may not limit youracceptance to the institution, but it might mean that youare going to be required to pay that additional cost. ms. williams: we have anotherquestion in from baku american center, asking, will astudent have to pay taxes? director jocelyn: that's aninteresting question, actually. i know that at gw, we do havea tax group that does work

with international students. i believe that if you areemployed by the institution, that you may have to pay taxes. but i believe if you aregoing to be coming and being employed, i would certainlyinquire with your school if you will have topay taxes on that. i'm not sure if you're payingtaxes on any scholarships, or merit that youmight be taking. you may.

director zanders: you can. if you are receivingmore grant funding, gift aid, than your tuition,fees, books and supplies, than any amount overthat could be taxable. and then you add that toany employment earnings, and it's possible that youwill have file a tax return. however, as a student, ithink it's somewhat rare that even after youfile the tax return, you're really having to paymuch out of pocket to cover

those taxes. if there was any withholdingat all on your earnings, then most of thetime, you might be getting money back instead ofhaving to pay additional taxes. if you're having topay taxes, you've done extremely well withthe scholarships and grants. from botswana askedabout financial aid for international studentswith disabilities. director zanders: again,that's one of those

that there may be scholarshipsand grants out there specific to studentswith disabilities. there may be someinstitutions that have a pool of funds forthat particular category. to my knowledge,there's nothing that says any studentwith a disability can apply for thisparticular scholarship. in the united states,we have something that's called vocationalrehabilitation,

but i believe that would belimited to u.s. citizens, or eligible noncitizens. and otherwise, you wouldjust have to do the research and see what might be out there,either from the institution, or from the scholarshipsearch service. director jocelyn:it may actually be worth-- a lot of schoolsnow have, for instance at gw we have disabilitysupport services. so it may be-- notonly if you want

to learn about how you canbe supported when you're at that particular institution. just from a physical,emotional type of standpoint, they may actuallybe able to help you learn more about any fundingopportunities through that. so i would definitelylook at the school to see if they have a disabilitysupport services department. director zanders: ithink there are also some organizationsin the united states

that would assist studentswith specific disabilities. i know that there is anassociation for the blind that assists with some funding. but i would, as jennifer said,go to your disability services office at the particularschool, and they may have more informationon that particular subject. ms. williams: let's go back toour viewing group in mongolia student: hi, can tell aboutresources and websites about scholarship?

ms. williams: ok,just so i'm clear, you're asking aboutresources for scholarships? student: yeah. resources and websitesabout scholarships. ms. williams: oh, andwebsites about scholarships. director zanders: did wehave that slide available? are you going toshow that later? we have a slide,i know that we're going to put up, thatwould give you all

of those different websites. there's one calledwww.finaid.org. there's one calledwww.fastweb.com, and another that'scollegeboard.org. and those all have a multitudeof scholarships on them that students cansearch, and find particular criteriathat might apply to you and your program of study. ms. williams: and we can makesure those links are also

available in the web chat. thank you for your question. student: hello, ladies. could you explainthe options for those who have u.s. passportsor green cards? ms. williams: ok, so make surei understand the question. to explain aboutfinancial aid for those who already have a green card? is that correct?

director zanders:yes, i can do that. if you have a green card, orpermanent resident status, you are eligible to fill outthe free application for federal student aid. and that could thenpotentially qualify you for any of the different federalaid programs-- and sometimes the state programs,depending on the state. fill out the free applicationfor federal student aid. if you're planning to attendcollege in the fall of 2016,

you can fill out that freeapplication for federal student aid now, and the earlieryou do it, the better. if you file a taxreturn in your country, make sure you have completedyour tax return first. and then use that informationto fill out the free application i want to warnstudents a little bit about a change that's comingfor the fall of 2017- 2018. usually, studentsup until this year can start filling outthe fafsa as of january 1

for the following fall. starting for thefall of 2017- 2018, students can beginfilling out that free application for federal studentaid, or fafsa, on october 1, 2016. and you'll be using the same taxyear information, which would be 2015 tax return information. keep that in mind,because that's a change that's going to beoccurring during this year.

but if you are applyingfor this coming fall, fill out that freeapplication right away. get all of your applicationfor admission information in, so that the school canoffer you an award package. ms. williams: all right, let'sget back to some more questions do my sat scores and gpa helpin receiving financial aid? director jocelyn: i think ihad alluded to that earlier. depending upon theschool that you apply to, they may havescholarships, depending

on how you perform, bothacademically from a gpa standpoint, and/or how youperform on an sat or act test. so it really dependsfrom school to school, but there are possibleopportunities out there based on your academic performance. ms. williams: ok, we havea question from pakistan. do summer enrichment programs,like pre-collegiate programs at universities, help duringthe admission process? and can i getfinancial aid for this?

director zanders: iwould say that's some of the pre-admissionsprograms may give the institutionan opportunity to get to know the student. and in thoseinstances, it might be helpful in receivingsome type of assistance. but you're likely notgoing to know that prior to coming to the institution. and as far asgetting financial aid

for a pre-summer program,unless that program is part of a program of study,it might be a rare opportunity if there would beanything available to assist with that funding. normally there's morelike orientation programs, or there may besomething in there for esl, or if there's anydevelopmental studies needed. that might be part ofthat pre-admission summer. and in those instances,i would most likely

say there's not going to befinancial aid available to fund them. director jocelyn: ok, so anotherquestion from tajikistan asks, is it possible to takedistance education for free from u.s. universitiesin order to get a degree? director zanders: there aremoocs, what we call moocs out there thatare open programs, but they don't necessarilylead to a degree. they just lead togaining the knowledge.

online educationis generally going to cost you as much astaking in-seat classes, with the exception thatyou can stay at home and take the classes. as we mentionedbefore, i think there is a limit on thenumber of online courses that a student can take,if they are an f1 student and maintain an f1 statuswithin the united states. online's always goingto be available,

but i don't think it'sgoing to be for free. are you aware thatare free of charge? director jocelyn: no, buti think moocs are actually a great way to see whatan online course might feel like and look like,and see how you do in that. a lot of really prestigiousuniversities here and in the states aredoing those moocs. so it's worth checking them out,just for-- more informational, i think, than anything.

director zanders: and thereare opportunities occasionally to use priorlearning assessments to gain some college credits,depending on the institution. but you'd have to go through atesting process, or a portfolio process, and therewould still be a charge to get those credits,even for prior learning. and if you took the moocs, youmight have the prior learning, but there still would be acost to getting the college credit for it.

ms. williams: sholiafrom baku asks, why education or somecourses in the united states are more expensive than in othercountries, and is it worth it? director jocelyn: i think it'sa great question, actually. when it comes to use studyingin the u.s., what i've seen, and maybe joan cantalk to her experience at community colleges, butas i've studied this field, and looked at the costof attending school here in the u.s., you have seen thecost continue to rise, year

after year after year. a lot of that may have to dowith just the services provided around attending school. so you may be seeing tuitioncosts for those courses go up, because when you comeand live on campus, you have services thatare offered to you, both living, food,student engagement. you have activities. so i think there are a lotof other costs that come up.

now, the question ofit-- is it worth it? i think it dependson the investment that you're making in that. and one place i think that youcould learn a little bit more, if you're very data-oriented,is i would go and take a look at payscale collegereturn on investment report. i think maybe they'll put upthe web url at some point here. but what you canlook at on there, is you can actuallycompare and contrast

different schools and the returnon investment for 20 years out. so you invest up front, and thenhow are those students doing 20 years out? are they getting a returnon their investment? and i think that's oneway to potentially answer the question, is it worth it? but i think getting atleast a bachelor's degree is really important tonot only your enrichment, but your potential successwhether you're in the u.s.

or abroad. director zanders: it's alsoimportant to understand the different types ofcolleges in the united states. there are private collegesthat are in the business to make money, and they maycost you a little bit more. some of them are verygood, some of them are not. there are also privatecolleges that are outstanding, have been here for a long time. they have wonderful degreesand high academic achievement.

there are also public colleges,and the public colleges are typically less expensive,because they have tax support. so instead of the studentpaying the full cost, the taxpayers in theunited states help fund some of those costs. and if you're a nonresidentstudent and paying out-of-statetuition, you're going to be making up some ofthose additional costs. but every college is different,and it's extremely important

that you, again,do the research. check to see what thehistory of that college is. see whether or not they'repart of that website that says this is a good purchase. don't think just becauseit's higher cost, it's going to bea better school, because many times it isn't. but you've got todo the research and figure out whichschool is going

to be best for you, which oneoffers the program of study that you want and need, andthen what is their history? can they offer me what i want? are their courses transferableto another institution, in the event that thisone doesn't work for me? and there are someinstitutions where every single courseyou take is going to be transferable to other colleges. there are otherswhere they may not

be what we callregionally accredited. if they're notregionally accredited, some schools won'ttake their credits. so it's very importantthat you do the research and find out what type ofinstitution this really is. ms. williams: ok, onlineviewers including our viewing group at utech labathens, are asking about sports scholarships. can you tell us about that?

director jocelyn: i can talka little bit about that. i actually played divisioni college basketball here and for instance,at my alma mater, more than-- i think60% of our men's team was actually international. so if you are reallyexcelling at sports, i think it's definitelyworth even inquiring of that athleticdepartment at that school. do they have anyscholarship opportunities?

if you're an amazingplayer, you might be looking at a lot ofopportunities for scholarships. but even division ii anddivision iii athletic programs may or may not have thelevel of scholarship that you might find ata big public institution in the division i level. but there are opportunities. it's always, again, worth askingof those athletic departments. director zanders:and there are even

some community colleges thatoffer athletic scholarships. not many, but thereare some that do. ms. williams: azmaasked, what is the average cost of universityfor a year in the u.s.? does it differ a lot fromregion to region and university to university? director zanders: yes, itdoes vary a great deal. most of the time, thebiggest difference in the cost of attendanceis in the tuition and fees.

and there are someareas of the country, as we mentioned before, thatmay be more expensive for living expenses as well. but the biggest costdifference is going to be in the tuition and fees. and again, that may varyfrom school to school based on whether it'sa private school, or whether it's apublic institution. average cost-- we alsodo a separate budget

if the student is livingat home with parents, as opposed to living onhis or her own, simply because you've got more expenseif you're living on your own. but for northern virginiacommunity college, for an out-of-statestudent, i would say you're looking at a costof attendance of about $25,000, but that's everything. that's room andboard, transportation, personal miscellaneousexpenses, tuition

and fees, books and supplies. that covers the basic cost. if you are an in-statestudent, all of those costs could be in the neighborhoodof $16,000, instead of $25,000. or $20,000, depending onwhere the student is living. ms. williams: and i thinkto help you answer the cost question, and lookingat the differences, another great siteis college scorecard. it's something thatpresident obama really

pushed in the last, ithink, two years or so. and it's a great way to lookat how those costs sort of line up from school to school. so you can reallytake a look at one, and say oklahoma versus newyork city versus san francisco, and you may see exactly thesame cost of attendance. or you may not. so it's worth lookingat using something like that tool to really seehow things are different.

director zanders: butwhen i was talking about the cost ofattendance at nova, just as an example--the tuition and fees for an in-state studentis going to be more in the neighborhood of about$5,000 to $6,000 a year, depending on the number ofcredits the student takes. that's a small piece of thetotal cost of attendance. at another school that'sa private institution, that tuition fees may bea much higher percentage

of the total cost. there are someinstitutions in the united states with tuition andfees-- what, $45,000, $60,000? so it depends a greatdeal on which school you're planning to attend. and again, check that out. most of the websitesare going to give you those costs ofattendance figures. and do that research,and then you'll

know what those costsare going to be. let's go back to ourviewing group of mongolia for a final question. mongolia, do you havea question for us? student: we don'thave any questions. ms. williams: no more questions? that's great. well, thank you so much,mongolia, for joining us today. it looks like weare out of time.

so i'd like to thank everyonefor their participation in today's web chat. thank you all toour online viewers, including all thosewatching in viewing groups. a special thank youagain to mongolia. and of course, a very bigthank you to jennifer and joan. i'm really glad you wereable to make it in today. if you have any questions, goto your nearest educationusa advising center in your country.

or visiteducationusa.info/centers. joan, jennifer, do you haveany final thoughts you'd like to share before we close? director zanders:i just want to say, i hope we didn't discourage you. we want to provide thosecautions, because there's this sense sometimes that thestreets in the united states are paved with gold. and they're not.

it's just as difficult forstudents within the united states, sometimes, to pay forthe cost of higher education. but at same time, there arelots of resources out there. and each institution is goingto have something available. so just to do that research,plan, start planning early. make sure you meetthe deadlines, do a great job on yourscholarship application, complete the admissionprocess early, and there areopportunities for you.

and we'd love to have youstudy in the united states. it is a wonderful place to come. i'd like to visit yourcountries as well. and hopefully somedaywe'll be able to do that. director jocelyn: andagain, i would just say, this is a great opportunityfor us to speak with you. again, we would love tohave you here in the states, and we reallyencourage you to look at the opportunitiesthat are out there

and do that researchas joan said. and again, i would justreiterate that this truly is an investment. and it's an investmentin your future. and it is worth it. i really do think it's worth it. and again, i do hope tovisit as well sometime. so thank you forhaving us here today. director zanders:that world perspective

makes all the difference. director jocelyn: yes,it definitely does. director zanders: andthe more opportunities that you have to do that,the better rounded you're going to be, andthe better prepared you're going to be to workin a global workforce. ms. williams: thankyou, joan and jennifer. a recording of this programwill be available on this page tomorrow, so pleasecome back and watch.

we hope all ofour online viewers can join us forour next web chat. we'll update the websitewith more information soon.